Daniel Dumile ( DOO-muh-lay; July 13, 1971 – October 31, 2020), best known by his stage name MF Doom or simply Doom (both stylized in all caps), was a British-American rapper and record producer. Noted for his intricate wordplay, signature metal mask, and "supervillain" stage persona, Dumile became a major figure of underground hip hop and alternative hip hop in the 2000s. After his death, Variety described him as one of the scene's "most celebrated, unpredictable and enigmatic figures".Born in London, Dumile moved to Long Island, New York, at a young age. He began his career in 1988 as a member of KMD, performing as Zev Love X. The group disbanded in 1993 upon the death of member DJ Subroc, Dumile's brother. After a hiatus, Dumile reemerged in the late 1990s, performing at open mic events while wearing a metal mask resembling that of Marvel Comics supervillain Doctor Doom, who is depicted on the cover of his 1999 debut solo album Operation: Doomsday. He adopted the MF Doom persona and rarely made unmasked public appearances thereafter.
Between 2003 and 2005, Dumile released four solo albums and three collaborative albums. In addition to the critically acclaimed Mm..Food (2004) under the MF Doom moniker, he released solo albums including one under the pseudonym King Geedorah and two as Viktor Vaughn. Madvillainy (2004), recorded with producer Madlib under the name Madvillain, is often cited as Dumile's magnum opus and is regarded as a landmark album in hip hop. In 2005, Dumile released The Mouse and the Mask with producer Danger Mouse as Danger Doom.
Though he lived the majority of his life in the United States, Dumile never gained American citizenship. In 2010, he was denied reentry after returning from an international tour for his sixth and final solo album, Born Like This (2009). He relocated to London and, in his final years, worked mostly in collaboration with other artists, releasing albums with Jneiro Jarel (as JJ Doom), Bishop Nehru (NehruvianDoom), and Czarface (Czarface Meets Metal Face and the posthumous Super What?).