The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (Russian: Всеросси́йская чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия, tr. Vserossíyskaya chrezvycháynaya komíssiya, IPA: [fsʲɪrɐˈsʲijskəjə tɕrʲɪzvɨˈtɕæjnəjə kɐˈmʲisʲɪjə]), abbreviated VChK (Russian: ВЧК, IPA: [vɛ tɕe ˈka]), and commonly known as Cheka (Russian: Чека́, IPA: [tɕɪˈka]; from the initialism ЧК, ChK), was the first of a succession of Soviet secret-police organizations. Established on December 5 (Old Style) 1917 by the Sovnarkom, it came under the leadership of Felix Dzerzhinsky, a Polish aristocrat-turned-Bolshevik. By late 1918, hundreds of Cheka committees had sprung up in the RSFSR at the oblast, guberniya, raion, uyezd, and volost levels.

Ostensibly set up to protect the revolution from reactionary forces, i.e., "class enemies" such as the bourgeoisie and members of the clergy, it soon became the repression tool against all political opponents of the communist regime. At the direction of Lenin, the Cheka performed mass arrests, imprisonments, torture, and executions without trial.

In 1921, the Troops for the Internal Defense of the Republic (a branch of the Cheka) numbered at least 200,000. They policed labor camps, ran the Gulag system, conducted requisitions of food, put down rebellions and riots by workers and peasants, and mutinies in the Red Army.

The organization was dissolved in 1922 and succeeded by the State Political Directorate or GPU, which acted with similar aims but more restraint.

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