Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combustion does not always result in fire, because a flame is only visible when substances undergoing combustion vaporize, but when it does, a flame is a characteristic indicator of the reaction. While the activation energy must be overcome to initiate combustion (e.g., using a lit match to light a fire), the heat from a flame may provide enough energy to make the reaction self-sustaining.

Combustion is often a complicated sequence of elementary radical reactions. Solid fuels, such as wood and coal, first undergo endothermic pyrolysis to produce gaseous fuels whose combustion then supplies the heat required to produce more of them. Combustion is often hot enough that incandescent light in the form of either glowing or a flame is produced. A simple example can be seen in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen into water vapor, a reaction which is commonly used to fuel rocket engines. This reaction releases 242 kJ/mol of heat and reduces the enthalpy accordingly (at constant temperature and pressure):


















































{\displaystyle {\ce {2H_{2}(g){+}O_{2}(g)\rightarrow 2H_{2}O\uparrow }}}

Uncatalyzed combustion in air requires relatively high temperatures. Complete combustion is stoichiometric concerning the fuel, where there is no remaining fuel, and ideally, no residual oxidant. Thermodynamically, the chemical equilibrium of combustion in air is overwhelmingly on the side of the products. However, complete combustion is almost impossible to achieve, since the chemical equilibrium is not necessarily reached, or may contain unburnt products such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen and even carbon (soot or ash). Thus, the produced smoke is usually toxic and contains unburned or partially oxidized products. Any combustion at high temperatures in atmospheric air, which is 78 percent nitrogen, will also create small amounts of several nitrogen oxides, commonly referred to as NOx, since the combustion of nitrogen is thermodynamically favored at high, but not low temperatures. Since burning is rarely clean, fuel gas cleaning or catalytic converters may be required by law.

Fires occur naturally, ignited by lightning strikes or by volcanic products. Combustion (fire) was the first controlled chemical reaction discovered by humans, in the form of campfires and bonfires, and continues to be the main method to produce energy for humanity. Usually, the fuel is carbon, hydrocarbons, or more complicated mixtures such as wood that contains partially oxidized hydrocarbons. The thermal energy produced from combustion of either fossil fuels such as coal or oil, or from renewable fuels such as firewood, is harvested for diverse uses such as cooking, production of electricity or industrial or domestic heating. Combustion is also currently the only reaction used to power rockets. Combustion is also used to destroy (incinerate) waste, both nonhazardous and hazardous.

Oxidants for combustion have high oxidation potential and include atmospheric or pure oxygen, chlorine, fluorine, chlorine trifluoride, nitrous oxide and nitric acid. For instance, hydrogen burns in chlorine to form hydrogen chloride with the liberation of heat and light characteristic of combustion. Although usually not catalyzed, combustion can be catalyzed by platinum or vanadium, as in the contact process.


January 18, 2023

Five Burning Questions: Zach Bryan Finally Reaches the Hot 100’s Top 10 With ‘Something in the Orange’

"Orange" hits the chart's top tier in its 38th week, tied for the second-longest trip to the region in Hot 100 history.

November 4, 2022

New non-profit aims to reduce fentanyl-related overdoses at US music festivals

This Must Be The Place told NME how they distributed 10,000 free Narcan kits at festivals like Burning Man and Bonnaroo The post New non-profit aims to reduce fentanyl-related overdoses at US music festivals appeared first on NME.

November 1, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Taylor Swift Makes Chart History With ‘Midnights’ Debut

With its stunning first-week performance on both the Billboard 200 and Billboard Hot 100, Swift's opening 'Midnights' week is one for the record books.

October 18, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Glass Animals Break the Hot 100’s All-Time Longevity Record With ‘Heat Waves’

With its 91st week on the chart, the U.K. group passes the record 90-week mark set by The Weeknd in 2021 with "Blinding Lights."

October 11, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Bad Bunny Spends a 13th Week at No. 1 With ‘Un Verano Sin Ti’

The blockbuster set has proven to be the most enduring LP of the summer.

October 4, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Sam Smith & Kim Petras’ ‘Unholy’ Debuts at No. 3 on the Hot 100

The alt-pop collab, a viral hit before it was even released, becomes an instant major hit for Smith and Petras.

September 30, 2022

Watch Yeah Yeah Yeahs perform ‘Burning’ on ‘Kimmel’

The track is lifted from their latest album 'Cool It Down' The post Watch Yeah Yeah Yeahs perform ‘Burning’ on ‘Kimmel’ appeared first on NME.

September 28, 2022

Ex-Highlight member Yong Jun-hyung to make first solo comeback in three years

His first return to music since he was embroiled in the Jung Joon-young and Burning Sun scandals in 2019 The post Ex-Highlight member Yong Jun-hyung to make first solo comeback in three years appeared first on NME.

September 27, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Blackpink Score First Career No. 1 Album With ‘Born Pink’

Plus, “Shut Down” scores the highest debut on this week’s Hot 100 chart.

September 27, 2022

Pusha T Adds More Smoke to His McDonald’s Beef, Burning the McRib on New ‘Rib Roast’ Diss Track

The follow-up to the "Spicy Fish Diss" is part of the rapper's promotional partnership with Arby's

September 7, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Elton John & Britney Spears’ ‘Hold Me Closer’ Debuts at No. 6 on the Hot 100

In one week on the chart, "Hold Me Closer" has already outpaced the chart peak of John's prior Hot 100 smash, "Cold Heart."

August 30, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Blackpink Debut in Hot 100’s Top 25 & Atop Global Charts With ‘Pink Venom’

The No. 22 bow is the group's highest on the Hot 100 for an unaccompanied single.

August 23, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Nicki Minaj’s ‘Super Freaky Girl’ Debuts at No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100

The No. 1 debut of "Super Freaky Girl" is a historically notable one, both for Minaj and for rap in general.

August 16, 2022

Five Burning Questions: DJ Khaled, Drake & Lil Baby’s ‘Staying Alive’ Debuts in Hot 100’s Top Five

The star trio's Bee Gees-interpolating teamup is the highest debut on the Billboard Hot 100 this week.

August 10, 2022

Black Muslim Teens Hailed As ‘Heroes’ After Saving Residents From Burning East London Tower-Block

The fire broke out at a tower-block in Bethnal Green on Thursday, when the three teenagers were on their way to their Young Black Men project hub nearby.

August 10, 2022

Yeah Yeah Yeahs drop fiery dance floor ready single ‘Burning’

The track was inspired by The Four Seasons' ‘Beggin’ and an actual fire The post Yeah Yeah Yeahs drop fiery dance floor ready single ‘Burning’ appeared first on NME.

August 8, 2022

Yeah Yeah Yeahs share snippet of new single ‘Burning’ ahead of its release this week

And they've confirmed when it will drop The post Yeah Yeah Yeahs share snippet of new single ‘Burning’ ahead of its release this week appeared first on NME.

August 3, 2022

Authorities Say Utah Fire Was Started When Man Tried to Kill Spider by Burning It With Lighter

The man was arrested and booked on suspicion of multiple charges, including reckless burning, after allegedly admitting to accidentally starting the fire.

August 2, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Steve Lacy’s ‘Bad Habit’ Climbs to Just Outside the Billboard Hot 100’s Top 10

The cult favorite singer-guitarist's rapidly gaining Hot 100 hit is also his first single to ever reach the chart.

July 26, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Lizzo Debuts at No. 2 on Billboard 200 With ‘Special’ & Tops Hot 100 With ‘About Damn Time’

Lizzo's new album scores her best first-week numbers, while she also notches her second Hot 100 No. 1.

July 12, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Metallica’s ‘Master of Puppets’ Rides ‘Stranger Things’ Bump to Top 40

The thrash metal classic follows Kate Bush's "Running Up That Hill" to the top 40 following its usage in the sci-fi series' final season.

July 6, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Beyonce Hits the Hot 100’s Top 10 With ‘Break My Soul’

The pop legend's new house anthem moves 15-7 in its second week on the Hot 100.

June 28, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Drake Bows Atop Billboard 200 and Hot 100 With ‘Honestly, Nevermind’ and ‘Jimmy Cooks’

Drake's surprise-released, house-driven LP crashes the charts, albeit with a less resounding debut than 2021's 'Certified Lover Boy.'

June 21, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Joji Debuts in the Hot 100’s Top 10 With Viral ‘Glimpse of Us’ Single

The alt-R&B singer-songwriter scores his first major Hot 100 hit with his new TikTok-approved relationship ballad.

June 14, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Post Malone Debuts at No. 2 on Billboard 200 With ‘Twelve Carat Toothache’

Post Malone's first album of the 2020s debuts with a strong showing -- albeit not as strong as some previous efforts.

June 7, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Kate Bush’s ‘Running Up That Hill’ Hits New Peak After ‘Stranger Things’ Bump

"Hill" re-enters the Billboard Hot 100 at a new peak of No. 8 this week, following extensive use in the fourth season of 'Stranger Things.'

June 1, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Harry Styles’ ‘Harry’s House’ Moves Over 500,000 Units in Its First Week

Styles' third solo album becomes the fourth straight No. 1 album to set a new mark for the best first-week numbers of 2022.

May 31, 2022

Instagram removes former K-pop star Seungri from the platform

The singer was recently charged for his involvement in the Burning Sun scandal The post Instagram removes former K-pop star Seungri from the platform appeared first on NME.

May 24, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Kendrick Lamar’s ‘Mr. Morale & the Big Steppers’ Scores Best First Week of 2022

The long-anticipated new album also launches all 18 of its tracks on the Billboard Hot 100.

May 17, 2022

Five Burning Questions: Bad Bunny Debuts at No. 1 With Year’s Best Single-Week Tally For ‘Un Verano Sin Ti’

The 274,000 units moved by 'Verano' also marks the best single week for any album in the Puerto Rican superstar's career.


Algo Está Ardiendo

May 20, 2022

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Scourge of Humanity

January 16, 2022

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El Diablo en el Hoyo

April 16, 2021

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Malas Tierras

February 12, 2021

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Un Duro Invierno

December 18, 2020

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Decálogo (Sus 10 Mayores Éxitos)

April 20, 2018

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Vivo y salvaje

October 2, 2015

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Esto es un atraco (feat. Josele Santiago)

August 28, 2015

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China Man

January 1, 2014

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Pura Sangre

November 5, 2013

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Dulces Dieciseis

July 8, 2013

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Los Grandes Grupos Españoles de los 80's: Burning

May 21, 2013

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Noches de Rock'N'Roll

February 1, 2013

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El Fin de una Decada

February 1, 2013

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February 1, 2013

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Atrapado en el Amor

February 1, 2013

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Heroes de los 80. 1974-1975: Los Años que Empezamos a Vivir Peligrosamente

August 16, 2010

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Un Poquito de Rock & Roll

March 13, 2008

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Desnudos en el Joy

January 1, 2008

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May 1, 2002

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Cinco Años Con Burning (1985-1989)

May 25, 1998

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No mires atrás

July 1, 1993

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Burning en Directo (Dulce Dieciseis)

March 18, 1991

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Regalos para ”Mamá”

May 25, 1989

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Colección (Lo Mejor)

December 20, 1988

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May 25, 1987

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Hazme Gritar

May 25, 1985

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January 1, 1978

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